All praise and thanks are due to Allāh (subḥānahu wa taʿālā), the Lord of the worlds. Peace and blessings be upon our Prophet, Muhammad, his family and all his Companions. The following is a clarification of the rulings concerning Zakāt al-Fiṭr, this great symbol of Islām, for Muslims residing in Britain and other non-Muslim countries.
1. What is Zakāt al-Fiṭr?
Zakāt al-Fiṭr is a zakāh which is given at the end of the month of Ramaḍān by every Muslim, small or old, male or female, whether free or a slave.
2. What is the wisdom behind it?
This was explained by the great exegete [mufassir] of the Qur’ān, the noble Companion, ‘Abdullāh bin ‘Abbas (raḍiy Allāhu ʿanhu) when he said, ‘The Messenger of Allāh, may Allāh praise and send peace and blessings upon him, obligated Zakāt al-Fiṭr to serve as purification for the one fasting for any vain speech or indecent behaviour; and also to serve as food for the indigent.’
3. What is the legal ruling?
In the view of the majority of scholars, both early and latter generations, it is obligatory. This is due to the saying of Ibn ‘Umar, ‘The Messenger of Allāh obligated Zakāt al-Fiṭr as one sā’ of dates, or one sā’ of barley upon the slave, the free, the male, the female, the young and the old Muslim. He ordered that it be given before the people leave for the prayer.’2
4. On whom is it obligatory?
It is obligatory upon the Muslim, male or female; whether a slave or free, if he finds that he has a surplus of property after having catered for his core needs on the day and night of Eid, such as food, shelter, clothes etc. He must give this on his own behalf and on behalf of all Muslims who are dependant upon him, whether young or old, free or a slave, provided that the dependant is not able to give the zakāh on his or her own behalf. If they are able, it is better that they give on their own behalf due to the generality of the address that the Prophet (ṣall Allāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam) gave to the Muslims.
With regard to the young and insane, it should be paid on their behalf by their legal guardian from their own wealth if they have wealth, or if not, they take the ruling of those who are unable to pay on their own behalf. If a woman is the head of the household, she must pay on her own behalf and for her dependants as previously explained.
The meaning of ‘dependant’ is the person on whom it is a duty upon another to provide for. If someone were to give on behalf of a dependant who is a disbeliever, there is no harm in this, In Shā’ Allāh, in accordance to the Hanafi school.
5. To whom should it be given?
It is best for Zakāt al-Fiṭr to be given to the poor and indigent. They are the first two categories of the eight to whom zakāh is normally given to. This is due to his (ṣall Allāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam) saying, ‘…and as food for the indigent’. The majority of scholars are of the opinion that Zakāt al-Fiṭr is not to be given to non-Muslims.
It is possible for a person to give his and his dependants Zakāt al-Fiṭr to one person just as it is possible that the Zakāt al-Fiṭr of one person be distributed amongst a number of indigent people.
6. When should it be given?
It is best that it be given one or two days before the ‘Īd prayer, meaning that it should be given on the twenty-ninth day of Ramaḍān onwards; al-Bukhārī records, ‘They would give Zakāt al-Fiṭr a day or two before (Eid).’
In the case that one giving Zakāt al-Fiṭr gives money to an Islamic organisation which acts as a representative on his behalf to convert this money to food, there is no harm in giving the value in money to such an organisation a number of days before Eid. This is because in this case someone else is acting on his behalf and he is not giving zakāh directly; the person to whom he is giving money is acting as his representative and hence he is not actually giving the zakāh at the time he hands over the money.
It is best for a person to give it before his Eid prayer and not to delay it until after the prayer due to the saying of Ibn ‘Umar, ‘The Prophet ordered that it be given before the people leave for the prayer.’ Agreed upon.
If the person is to pray in a mosque in which a number of Eid congregations will be held, and he decides to pray in the second congregation, for example, then the deadline for his Zakāt al-Fiṭr is extended until just before he prays his prayer.
7. What should be given?
Zakāt al-Fiṭr should be given as staple food of the country in which one resides. Hence, it is possible that it be given as rice in some countries and flour or wheat in others etc. It is also possible to give it as modern day food items, provided that the food can be stored, such as pasta. The proof for this is the ḥadīth of Abū Sa‘id al-Khudri who said, ‘We would give Zakāt al-Fiṭr as a sā’ of food, or a sā’ of barley, or a sā’ of dates, or a sā’ of dry cheese, or a sā’ of raisins.’3
8. How much should be given?
A sā’ of food in modern day usage translates to approximately 2.25kg.
9. Can the monetary value of food be given as Zakāt al-Fiṭr?
The majority of scholars say that this is not permissible whereas the Hanafis say that it is. It is best for a person to not give its monetary value but give it as food because this is what the texts specify. Moreover, the specific reasoning of the text further proves that this is what should be given. Therefore, it is not possible to exercise ijtihad on this issue by claiming that one is looking to the reasoning behind the ruling. Furthermore, Zakāt al-Fiṭr is a very specific form of zakāh and one cannot make an analogy between it and the zakāh of one’s wealth and property: its source is different, the ones upon whom it is obligatory are different and its timing is different. As such, it cannot be said that it has the same purpose and can be associated with it in this manner.
10. How should one give Zakāt al-Fiṭr in the UK and other similar countries?
If a Muslim finds one who is deserving of Zakāt al-Fiṭr, he must give them a sā’ of food. If he does not find anyone, he can give an amount of money which is equivalent to the cost of food in these countries to an Islamic organisation that can distribute it as food in other lands. His intention should be that he is giving this money to a representative who can act on his behalf to buy food. The scholars have allowed this transferral, especially in demanding situations. Our state of affairs here, where it is hard to find the poor and indigent; the difficulty that exists in trying to give it as food; along with the dire need that exists in other lands presents a compelling case for the allowance of food to be distributed in other countries.
And Allāh (subḥānahu wa taʿālā) knows best.
This article has been reposted. First posted on 10th August 2012
1. Recorded by Abū Dāwūd.
2. The ḥadīth is agreed upon and the wording is that of al-Bukhārī.
3. Agreed upon.