As we know, ʿĀshūra is the tenth day of Muharram; the first month of the Islamic lunar year. The start of lunar months, besides Ramaḍān and Dhul-Hijjah for those performing Ḥajj, is decided based on one of two criteria: a) sighting the new moon and b) the completion of the previous month. This view is found to be agreed on by all scholars based on the prophetic tradition, ‘Fast when you see it (the moon) and cease fasting when you see it, and if it is hidden or cloudy, complete the counting of Shʿabān as thirty days.’
The second principle applies only in the absence of the first, which is to complete thirty days for the month of Shaʿbān. The basis for this is also mentioned in the ḥadīth as well as by means of many other (similar) statements. It has been stated by a number of jurists that the overwhelming majority of scholars have agreed not to consider astronomy or calculations as a tool to confirm the beginning of hijri months.
If the month of Muharram were not to be confirmed according to the criteria set out in the ḥadīth, then the best choice a person has is to fast either 2 or 3 days in which the ʿĀshūra fasting should logically be achieved. So the individual should calculate when ʿĀshūra would take place if Dhul-Hijjah were either 29 or 30 days, and then fast these two consecutive days. Thus the fasting individual should be certain that he has fasted ʿĀshūra and would have fasted either the ninth and tenth, or the tenth and eleventh, both of which are good. For example, this year (1439 A.H.) Muharram began on the 21st of September according to most calendars. Last month (which was the year 1438 A.H.), Dhul-Hijjah was 29 days based on the sighting of the moon.
The 10th day of Muharram (ʿĀshūra) will be on Saturday 30th September 2017. However, if Dhul-Hijjah had been 30 days then ʿĀshūra would have been on Sunday 1st October.
Imām Aḥmad b. Hanbal stated that a person should fast three days if he doubts the beginning of the month to be sure that he has fasted the correct day. In fact al-Nawawi indicated that a possible reason as to why the Prophet (sall Allāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam) fasted the 9th of Muharram (as well as the 10th) was to ensure that he fasted on ʿĀshūra (and did not miss it).
ʿAbdullāh b. ʿAbbās (raḍiy Allāhu ʿanhumā) said, “When the Messenger of Allāh (sall Allāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam) fasted on ʿĀshūra and commanded the Muslims to fast as well, they said, ‘O Messenger of Allāh, it is a day that is venerated by the Jews and Christians.’ The Messenger of Allāh (sall Allāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam) said, ‘If I live to see the next year, inshāAllāh, we will fast on the ninth day too.’ But it so happened that the Messenger of Allāh (sall Allāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam) passed away before the next year came.”
If an individual also wants to be sure of fasting on the 9th of Muharram 1439, then he should fast the two days we have spoken about and the day immediately before them as well. Then he would have fasted Friday 29/9/2017, Saturday 30/9/2017 and Sunday 1/10/2017 and so he definitely would have fasted the 9th and 10th of Muharram 1439.
If someone finds it extremely difficult to fast three consecutive days, then he should opt to fast the two days. If it is difficult to fast two days for whatever reason, despite the fact that days are very short in Europe this ʿĀshūra, he should calculate ʿĀshūra according to the aforementioned criteria. In other words, if he knows and has accepted that the moon of Muharram was sighted, then he should calculate the day of ʿĀshūra accordingly, otherwise he should calculate it based on the second criterion that completes Dhul-Hijjah as thirty days. It would be incorrect to calculate the day of ʿĀshūra according to the calendar.
And Allāh knows best
Islam21c requests all the readers of this article, and others, to share it on your facebook, twitter, and other platforms to further spread our efforts.
 Al-Bukhārī and Muslim, narrated by Abū Hurairah.
Brand is extremely powerful – like a car -Made in Japan vs Made in China vs Made in Germany- the perception- rational or irrational – sentiments – has the power to make or break.
If others see Muslims as a highly educated community – a community of best doctors, engineers, scientists, innovators who lead by knowledge – Muslims will get the positive brand – all problem will be solved- Muslims will be respected by all.
There is a major brand problem with Islam. This problem has to be solved by Muslims and Muslims only. The solution is be the knowledge leader in science and technology- there is no other solution.
If some one himself claims that he is good – no body will believe him. When others say he is good- all will believe.
This should be the target of the Muslim intellectuals.Use your energy, money , time in doing this.
As salam u alaikum
In your article you mention 2 conditions to end Shabaan and start Muharram. Not every country sight the moon on same day and thus different countries start Muharram on different days. Here we completed 30 days Shabaan and our 1 st day Miharram was on Sunday 26 th October. Ashoora will thus be on Tuesday 4 th November. So are we really fasting on Ashoora if we fast thr 9 th and 10 th Muharram? It doesn’t really matter if others are fasting Ashoora on Sunday or Monday and we Tuesday. We are only following the 2 condotions you mention to start any month. Same applies for Ramadhan and Eid. Different countries start and end a particular month on different days. So is there any country which miss the REAL Eid day? A country celebrate any event according to the sighting of the moon or completing 30 days. This is the right approach.
Jazak Allah khair
I Refuted this fasting lie last year
See my comments which were my own research last year.
As salaamou Alaikoum
dear brother, I am a bit confused as to which day we are fasting for Ashura, my calendar say it is the 10th of Muharram but some say the 9th of Muharram I live in the UK and I would like some clearance please, Jazaak Allah
Omar Ahmed, I find your reasoning quite fascinating, but would be interested in your sources. I have been a muslim for 21 years (revert), but an actively practicing one for only 3. I have learned quite a lot in these short years, but, when you, or anyone like you, comes out with new proofs, it throws me for a loop. And, I don’t like it. Whether I like what you say or not is not the point though. The point is if it’s TRUE! Someone along the way either got confused to the years or with the chain of narration? I have to admit, that when I read the hadith, and it said that the Prophet(saw) found the Jews fasting in relation to Musa (AS), then said we had more of a right to him, so we, too, should fast, but also a day before or day after, I had a “lightbulb” moment, as well. I am kindly asking if you are Shia and what were your sources for your comments? Thank you in anticipation of your response.
I am more confused!
Looking at the Hadeeth that set the tune for this exercise, especially the one narrated by ibn Abbas it is like the prophet (saw) woke up and met the Jews fasting and he assumed his own fasting after getting the explanation from the people( may Allah forgive me if i err here – Ameen). Nevertheless, all i know is that i strongly believe in the indivisible oneness of Allah (swt) and the prophet-hood of Muhammad (saw).I keep a strong old on my five daily Sallah.I observe the fast in the month of Ramadan and i uphold the payment of Zakat and the visiting of the house of the ALL KNOWING in Mecca at least once in my life time. After this, the rest is for Allah TO JUDGE! Brothers lets keep the family INTACT!.
the truth about Husayn RA part 2
It is reported in al-Saheeh that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “he is not one of us who strikes his cheeks, rends his garments and prays with the prayer of Jaahiliyyah.” And he said: “I have nothing to do with those who strike [their cheeks], shave [their heads] and rend [their garments].” And he said: “If the woman who wails does not repent before she dies, she will be raised up on the Day of Resurrection wearing trousers made of tar and a shirt of scabs.” In al-Musnad, it is reported from Faatimah bint al-Husayn, from her father al-Husayn, that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There is no man who suffers a calamity, and when he remembers it, even if it is old, he says ‘Innaa Lillaahi wa innaa ilayhi raaji’oon (Truly, to Allaah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return),’ but Allaah will give a reward equal to the reward He gave him on the day he suffered the calamity.” This is how Allaah honours the Believers. If the disaster suffered by al-Husayn, and other disasters, are mentioned after all this time, we should say “Innaa Lillaahi wa innaa ilayhi raaji’oon (Truly, to Allaah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return),” as Allaah and His Messenger commanded, so as to be given the reward like that earned on the day of the disaster itself. If Allaah commanded us to be patient and steadfast and to seek reward at the time of the disaster, then how about after the passing of time? The Shaytaan made this attractive to those who are misled, so they took the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as an occasion of mourning, when they grieve and wail, recite poems of grief and tell stories filled with lies. Whatever truth there may be in these stories serves no purpose other than the renewal of their grief and sectarian feeling, and the stirring up of hatred and hostility among the Muslims, which they do by cursing those who came before them, and telling many lies, and causing much trouble in the world. The various sects of Islam have never known any group tell more lies or cause more trouble or help the kuffaar against the Muslims more than this misguided and evil group. They are even worse than the Khawaarij who went beyond the pale of Islam. They are the ones of whom the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “They will kill the people of Islam and will leave alone the people who worship idols.” This group cooperated with the Jews, Christians and mushrikeen against the members of the Prophet’s household and his believing ummah, and also helped the mushrik Turks and Tatars to do what they did in Baghdaad and elsewhere to the descendents of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), i.e., the ‘Abbaasid rulers and others, and the believers; the Turks and Tatars killed them, enslaved their women and destroyed their homes. The evil and harm that they do to the Muslims cannot be enumerated by any man, no matter how eloquent he is. Some others – either Naasibis who oppose and have enmity towards al-Husayn and his family or ignorant people who try to fight evil with evil, corruption with corruption, lies with lies and bid’ah with bid’ah – opposed them by fabricating reports in favour of making the day of ‘Aashooraa’ a day of celebration, by wearing kohl and henna, spending money on one’s children, cooking special dishes and other things that are done on Eids and special occasions. These people took the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as a festival like Eid, whereas the others took it as a day of mourning. Both are wrong, and both go against the Sunnah, even though the other group (the Rafidis) are worse in intention and more ignorant and more plainly wrong… But Allaah commands us to be just and to treat others well. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Those of you who live after my death will see many disputes. I urge you to adhere to my Sunnah and the sunnah of my rightly-guided successors (al-khulafa’ al-raashidoon) who come after me. Hold onto it as if biting it with your eyeteeth. Beware of newly-innovated matters, for every innovation is a going astray.” Neither the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) nor his rightly-guided successors (the khulafa’ al-raashidoon) did any of these things on the day of ‘Aashooraa’, they neither made it a day of mourning nor a day of celebration.
the truth about Husayn RA part1
Then Shaykh al-Islam (may Allaah have mercy on him) mentioned a little about the biography of al-Hasan and his just character, then he said:
“Then he died, and Allaah was pleased with him and honoured him. Some groups wrote to al-Husayn and promised to support and help him if he went ahead and declared himself khaleefah, but they were not sincere. When al-Husayn sent his cousin [son of his paternal uncle] to them, they broke their word and gave help to the one they had promised to defend him against, and fought with him against [al-Husayn’s cousin]. Those who were wise and who loved al-Husayn, such as Ibn ‘Abbaas and Ibn ‘Umar and others, advised him not to go to them, and not to accept any promises from them. They thought that his going to them served no useful interest and that the consequences would not be good. Things turned out just as they said, and this is how Allaah decreed it would happen. When al-Husayn (may Allaah be pleased with him) went out and saw that things were not as he had expected, he asked them to let him go back, or to let him join the army that was defending the borders of Islam, or join his cousin Yazeed, but they would not let him do any of these things unless he gave himself up to them as a prisoner. So he fought with them, and they killed him and some of those who were with him, and he was wrongfully slain so he died as a shaheed whose martyrdom brought him honour from Allaah, and so he was reunited with the good and pure members of his family. His murder brought shame on those who had wrongfully killed him, and caused much mischief among the people. An ignorant, wrongful group – who were either heretics and hypocrites, or misguided and misled – made a show of allegiance to him and the members of his household, so they took the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as a day of mourning and wailing, in which they openly displayed the rituals of jaahiliyyah such as slapping their cheeks and rending their garments, grieving in the manner of the jaahiliyyah. But what Allaah has commanded us to do when disaster strikes – when the disaster is fresh – is to bear it with patience and fortitude, and to seek reward, and to remember that all things come from Allaah and we must return to Him, as He says (interpretation of the meaning): “… but give glad tidings to al-saabiroon (the patient ones), who, when afflicted with calamity, say: ‘Truly, to Allaah we belong and turly, to Him we shall return.’ They are those on whom are al-salawaat (the blessings) (i.e., who are blessed and will be forgiven) from their Lord, and (they are those who) receive His Mercy, and it is they who are the guided ones.” [al-Baqarah 2:155-157] .
haram fasting on ahsura part3
And lastly here is a point to ponder for the Muslims: The Prophet (s.a.w.) was sent with a religion to abrogate all previous religions and shari’ah. How was it that he deigned to imitate the custom of the Jews?
So why does this fast receive so much limelight? Why have they made this Sunnah so grand-scale? This is because there is an agenda behind it and this agenda is to divert attention away from Imam Al-Hussain عليه السلام – the Master of Martyrs who was not killed but slaughtered an hour before sunset on the 10th of Muharram. Therefore the only aim of talking intensively about this fast is to divert people’s attention away from what happened to Imam Al-Hussain عليه السلام on the 10th of Muharram because there is no tragedy greater than the tragedy of Kerbala in the history of Islam for it was the Grandson of the greatest Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم who was martyred on Ashura.
One feels constrained to mention here that this and other such traditions were forged by camp-followers of the Umayyads, after the martyrdom of Imam Husayn, as a part of their campaign to turn the 10th of Muharram into a day of rejoicing. These traditions are of the same genre as those which say that it was on the 10th of Muharram that Noah’s ark rested on Mount Arafat, the fire became cool and safe for Abraham, and Jesus ascended to the heaven. In the same category came the traditions exhorting the Muslims to treat ‘Ashura as a festival of joy, and to store one’s food-grain on this very day as it would increase one’s sustenance and bring the blessings of Allah to the household.
The focus of this propaganda is on the fast of Ashura and in order to deter people away from the important events that occurred on Ashura namely the tragedy of Kerbala, the media machinery keeps busy trying to get as many people as possible to focus on fasting instead. So that when the average Joe (or Juwariya!) thinks of Ashura, their minds are preoccupied with the fast instead.
The son of Lady Fatimah Al-Zahra, Peace be upon her sacrificed everything from his children to his family members and friends as well as his own life to protect and preserve the Religion of his Grandfather صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم
Usamah ibn Zayd narrated:
I went to the Prophet (PBUH&HF) one night about something I required
and he came out with something (I did not know what) under his cloak.
When I had finished telling him my business I asked him what he had
under his cloak, and when he opened it I saw al-Hasan and al-Husayn on
his hips. He then said, “These are my sons and my daughter’s sons. O
Allah, I love them, so I beseech Thee to love them and those who love
To love Holy Prophet PBUH & The Masters of the Youth of Paradise is to be happy in their happiness, and sad in the times of their sadness. And verily, the day of Ashura is not a day of rejoice or celebration for the Ummah of the Holy Prophet (saww).
Remember Allah encourages us to think, question and reflect. It is therefore imperative to use the faculties He has bestowed upon us to worship Him with understanding.
fasting on muharram is haram part2
Also it is important to look at the word “ASHURA” and how it was used by the Arabs. Ibn Atheer, one of the greatest scholars of the Arabic language says about this word Ashura that is has an old meaning and a new meaning (as confirmed by old Arabic dictionaries). The old meaning of Ashura means “the tenth of any month” whereas the new meaning came after the Martyrdom of Imam Al-Hussain (a.s), the son of Imam Ali (a.s). Ibn Atheer when asked of this Hadeeth which encourages people to fast of Ashura, commented that the word Ashura has two different usages.
The old usage which means the tenth of any month as “Ashra” means ten and therefore if we were living at that time and we had to fast on Ashura, in those days this did not mean the 10th of Muharram rather it meant the 10th of any month as the word Ashura became synonymous with the 10th of Muharram after the Martyrdom of Imam Al-Hussain (a.s) in Kerbala.
Therefore any Hadeeth which talks of fasting on Ashura before the sixty first year of Hijra (before Ashura=Imam Al-Hussain’s عليه السلام Ashura) it does not necessarily mean the 10th of Muharram it could refer to the 10th of any month. This is important as once the correct meaning of the word Ashura is deduced and we look at the Hadeeth of fasting on the day of Ashura (narrated 1st of Hijra) then it does not necessarily mean the 10th of Muharram. As Ashura being synonymous with the 10th of Muharram occurred only after the Martyrdom of Imam Al-Hussain عليه السلام in Kerbala.
We must ask ourselves the rhetorical question: “are there any Jews living in the world?” the unanimous answer will be yes, which means we can go and ask them whether they fast on an area which corresponds to the 10th of Muharram. You can ask a Rabbi whether in the Jewish calendar if they have a fast on the day Prophet Musa عليه السلام and the children of Israel were saved and whether they have a fast related to this incident. This angle will bring about the mathematical calculations related to the Islamic and Jewish calendar and the day of Ashura related to Prophet Musa عليه السلام.
As the narrators of the Hadeeth about fasting on the day of Ashura say that RasoolAllah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم says that the Jews are fasting and therefore we must also fast. The narration states that the Jews were fasting on the 10th of Tishri (Tishri is a Jewish month) and as the Jews fasted on the 10th of Tishri due to Prophet Musa عليه السلام and his people being saved, this coincided with the 10th of Muharram and therefore RasoolAllah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ordered the Muslims to fast too. Mathematically, this was never the case as the only time the 10th of Tishri from the Jewish calendar has coincided with the 10th of Muharram in the Islamic calendar was in the 28th year after Hijra.
10th of Muharram = 10th of Tishri occured only on the 28th year of Hijra
Whereas this Hadeeth is meant to have related an incident that occurred on the first year of Hijra. Also the 10th of Tishri is not when Prophet Musa عليه السلام and his people were saved, rather this day is observed as Yom Kippur= Day of Atonement (when Allah was angry with the children of Israel for worshipping a calf in Prophet Musa’s عليه السلام absence and therefore had to pay atonement)
Therefore the origins behind 10th of Tishri is not due to Allah saving Prophet Musa عليه السلام and his people from drowning rather it is a day of atonement. The actual day when they were saved from drowning was the 15th of Nissan (in the Jewish calendar) which on the first year of Hijra fell on the 23rd of Ramadan.
Therefore if there should have been a fast related to Prophet Musa عليه السلام then it should have been on the 23rd of Ramadan.
Haram fasting on the day of ashura!!!!
Some schools push the point forward that fasting on the day of Ashura is Mustahab : (recommended) as ‘Ashura’ commemorates the day that Allah سبحانه وتعالى saved the Children of Israel from Pharaoh and fasting on this day is a Sunnah of the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم.
The Hadeeth in question goes something like this:
Ibn ‘Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, came to Madinah and saw the Jews fasting on the day of ‘Ashura. He asked: “What is this?”
They said: “This is a righteous day, it is the day when Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemies, so Musa fasted on this day.” He said:
“We have more right to Musa than you,” so he fasted on that day and commanded [the Muslims] to fast on that day. [Reported by al-Bukhari, 1865]
Fasting on the day of Ashura is narrated in 3 out of the 6 Hadeeth books used: al-Bukhari [as above], Muslim Sahih & Tirmidhi Sunan. Therefore when we look at a Narration in Islam regarding an act of Worship, the first question to be asked is
“what is the chain of the narrators?”
As we aim to find a chain which is strong (which gives the saying credibility as well as reliability). The fasting of Ashura recommended by RasoolAllah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم has four narrators which always come up in the chain, they are:
•Abu Musa Al-Ashari
•Mu’awiya ibn Abu sufyan
It is important to note that the difference we have on this chain is not due to the School we belong to in Islam, it is about where these four individuals were at the time of this alleged Hadeeth.
As this Hadeeth is meant to have came when RasoolAllah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم came into Medina which is the first year of Hijrah. So where were these four at this time?
1.Ibn Abbas : he was four years old at this time (as he was born 3 years before Hijrah) so for argument’s sake say that he was taken on Hijra and heard every single bit of this conversation RasoolAllah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم had with the jews..he would have been only four years old at the time and according to Scholars of Hadeeth, a four year old is not necessarily reliable… when relating an incident.
2.Abu Musa Al-Ashari: who came from Banu Ashar, a tribe from Yemen. Abu Musa Al-Ashari became a Muslim before Hijra yet the period between Hijra and Khaybar, he was nowhere to be seen as he was instructed by RasoolAllah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم to go back to Yemen and spread the teachings of Islam. Therefore he could not have been with RasoolAllah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم on Hijra as he was in Yemen giving Dawah. The first glimpse of Abu Musa Al-Ashari was after the of Khaybar.
3.Abu Hurairah who came from Banu Daus tribe in Yemen and converted to Islam at a young age but was seen in Medina again also after the Battle of Khaybar. (which occurred on the 7th year of Hijra), whereas this Hadeeth of the conversation RasoolAllah Peace صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم had with the Jews and declaring Ashura to be a day of Fasting is written to have took place on the 1st of Hijra yet neither Abu Musa Al-Ashari nor Abu Hurairah were to be seen in Medina at this time so how did they know of this conversation word-by-word that allegedly took place listed as narrators?
4.Muawiyyah the son of Abu Sufyan who is known to have accepted Islam after the conquest of Makkah which was the 8th year of Hijrah. 7 years after this particular incident. Therefore taking Mu’awiyyah as a sound source for this narration is simply not possible, he was not there at this incident nor was he a Muslim; he came seven years after.
Therefore it is difficult to take this Hadeeth as reliable as the chain includes people who were not even present at the time of this incident.
Brother read this carefully…this happened on the year before the death of prophet peace be upon him, when he arrived Madinah, not after the first hijrah from Makkah to Madinah..Abdullāh b. ʿAbbās (raḍiy Allāhu ʿanhumā) said, “When the Messenger of Allāh (sall Allāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam) fasted on ʿĀshūra and commanded the Muslims to fast as well, they said, ‘O Messenger of Allāh, it is a day that is venerated by the Jews and Christians.’ The Messenger of Allāh (sall Allāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam) said, ‘If I live to see the next year, inshāAllāh, we will fast on the ninth day too.’ But it so happened that the Messenger of Allāh (sall Allāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam) passed away before the next year came.”Muslim.
We should we uniting the ummah and creating understanding rather than following mere articles and fitna. who is the author of those articles, what proof do they have, have u understood WHY the saudi’s apparently use calenders? Have u understood why the scholars/leaders have to utilise the methods that do? isnt this what islam teaches us? so as much as i appreciate you wanting to share the apparent truth, you need to explain all sides of the coin to allow people to understand.
reposted the article here:
Saudi Arabia announces a U-Turn on the day of Aashuraa (Alhamdulillah) Aashura is on TUESDAY
It looks as though that this article was written before the month of Muharram. However, if this was written recently, I would like to point out that a major mistake of the Saudi Arabian regime has been tried to be concealed, and not for the first time regarding this issue.
Saudi Arabia announces a U-Turn on the day of Aashuraa (Alhamdulillah). Aashura is on TUESDAY.
I would like to know the thoughts of those who support following the lies of Hizb ul Ulama and the deceit of the Saudi criteria…
For those who would like to learn the truth and unite the Muslims in the UK upon the truth, please visit the following websites:
My dear respected brother:
Below is the concluding extract from the last source you’ve provided:
“Hence, the 9th and 10th of Muharram – days on which Muslims are recommended to fast – fall on Monday (Dec. 5) and Tuesday (Dec. 6) respectively.”
Brother, with all due respect, How can you trust a site that doesn’t know that after October is November?