Children and adults with Intellectual Disabilities, as well as their families, suffer unprecedented levels of prejudice and discrimination throughout their lives. Such individuals are frequently victims of aggressive abuse, hostility, humiliation, conflict, teasing and stares. They also experience social isolation, lack of support from their extended families, and problems accessing education, employment and healthcare services. These cases of discrimination are not limited to non-Muslims, but are also prevalent within the Muslim community. Today, being World Autism Awareness Day, offers an opportunity for us to reflect seriously on the question: have we failed as a community when it comes to Intellectual Disabilities?
Despite rising cases of Muslim children being born with Intellectual Disabilities – by 2021 it is estimated that up to 7% of children with Intellectual Disabilities in the UK will be Muslim – limited awareness and understanding of Intellectual Disabilities still exists within the Muslim community today. The prevalent belief among Muslims is that Intellectual Disabilities are caused by mental illness, possession by Jinns, supernatural phenomena and punishment for previous sins. However, such beliefs are borne out of ignorance, and only serve to reinforce stigma, negative attitudes and discrimination. This not only has the potential to limit the quality of life of those with Intellectual Disabilities, resulting in low self-esteem and negative self-evaluations, but it also impedes their inclusion and social acceptance into mainstream society. To tackle this problem there is a vital need for greater awareness and understanding of Intellectual Disabilities, especially focusing on the impact they have on individuals and their families within the Muslim community.
An Intellectual Disability is defined as a significant impairment in intellectual functioning and socially adaptive behaviour, which has an onset before adulthood. It can take the form of a number of conditions, some of which are Autism, Down’s syndrome, Asperger’s syndrome and Fragile X. These are primarily caused by biological factors, either through genetics, brain abnormalities or complications at birth, none of which necessarily have theological or supernatural foundations. In fact, neither the Qur’ān nor the Sunnah negate this, and those who state otherwise misinterpret verses from the Qur’ān and ahādīth to support their ill-conceived opinions. In light of these misconceptions, there has been a long history of families being exploited within the Muslim community by “spiritual healers” (rāqīs), who falsely claim that these disabilities are curable through spiritual healing (ruqya). For financial gain and out of pure ignorance, many spiritual healers exploit vulnerable families by persuading them that their child has a “disease” that can be cured. They cite the well-known hadīth that there is no disease that Allāh has created, except that He has also created its treatment. However, they fail to explain to families that Intellectual Disabilities are not diseases but rather, biological conditions that have no known “cure”.
Holding onto the belief that Intellectual Disabilities are curable can be extremely detrimental to the people affected. It not only gives parents false hope that their children will one day be “cured”, but there is a major risk of their children not being given the social and developmental skills specific to their disability to prosper and lead independent lives. In essence, the only difference between them and non-disabled people is that they are programmed differently and thus, are no different to their non-disabled counterparts in every other way. If given the opportunity and right support, they can live extremely happy and independent lives and in some cases, outdo their non-disabled peers in different facets of their lives. For example, many Muslims are surprised to know that people with Intellectual Disabilities have special abilities, such as photographic memory and are able to perfectly mimic Qur’ān reciters. They are able to perform a host of other incredible feats that most non-disabled people would struggle to achieve. However, a lack of knowledge and an unwillingness to break preconceptions regarding Intellectual Disabilities encourages acts of discrimination towards them, reducing them and their parents to the fringes of their Muslim communities.
Being a parent of a child with an Intellectual Disability is extremely challenging. On a daily basis they go through great hardship, and sacrifice a large part of their lives to take care of their children. Many parents have to stop visiting family to protect their children from misinformed attitudes and bullying that is rife within the Muslim community. They are told they have brought shame to the wider family network for giving birth to a “different” child and are constantly bullied, mocked, cursed, called derogatory names and looked down upon. Many parents are also physically and verbally abused because their child is viewed as abnormal when they show instances of challenging behaviour in public. On many occasions, Muslim parents with “normal” children boycott such families in fear for their own children because misconceptions drive their understanding of Intellectual Disabilities and thus perpetuate the stigma further. Additionally, due to the constant intolerance and abuse they suffer, many parents feel the need to hide their children from the community, in order to protect them. As a result, Muslim parents often have to look for help from non-Muslims, who they find to be far more tolerant of disabilities.
In light of these problems and challenges, it is imperative the Muslim community understands the implications their words and actions have on families and their children with Intellectual Disabilities. While most people will only see such children for a few minutes in their daily lives, parents have to see their children grow up with these conditions. They also have to face up to the reality that they will face a great deal of discrimination in their lives, and will not be able to have the same future as other children. Additionally, taking care and managing the behaviour of children with these challenges is not an easy task, and one that is both emotionally and physically demanding. On many occasions, it can lead to the breakdown of the family and a host of other problems. In many instances parents who have children with learning disabilities have to cope with their own mental health issues or an Intellectual Disability. Just like their children, they are also greatly disadvantaged in terms of access to education, employment and healthcare and can easily fall through the cracks of a system that should provide them with the support they require. Therefore, a concerted effort needs to be made by the Muslim community to help support families in this situation. This can be achieved in a number of ways, one of which is simply reaching out to families by visiting and supporting them.
Due to the immense struggles they go through on a daily basis, most parents can sometimes forget about the great reward they are attaining whilst they care for their child. Bearing in mind that Allāh (‘Azza wa Jall) praises parents for their sacrifice towards their non-disabled children, one can only imagine the reward parents gain for their sacrifice towards their child with an Intellectual Disability. Such children are very close to Allāh (‘Azza wa Jall) because many remain in an innocent state (ma’sūm) and will not be held accountable for their actions. Therefore, by loving them, exhibiting patience, not being resentful and thanking Allāh (‘Azza wa Jall) for this opportunity given to them, they can be a means for their parents and their carers to attain Paradise. They should also understand that no believer is struck with any form of distress, other than it being a means for them to expiate their sins. Additionally, Muslims must understand that such difficulties are a test from Allāh, not just for families with such children but also for the wider Muslim community who will be held accountable for their attitudes and actions towards them.
In relation to the treatment of people with Intellectual Disabilities, there is much that can be learnt from the Qur’ān and the Sunnah. Allāh tells the believers that people with special needs have value and have rights upon them, and they have been ordered to give them attention and be gentle with them. Therefore, it is an obligation upon Muslims to take care of vulnerable individuals and treat them with kindness. During the time of the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), many of the Sahāba (radiallāhu ‘anhum) suffered from a range of disabilities. ‘Abdullāh b. Ummi Maktūm (radiallāhu ‘anhu) was blind, ‘Amr b. Jamūh (radiallāhu ‘anhu) suffered from a severe limp and Julaybīb (radiallāhu ‘anhu) was described as being deformed and ‘repulsive’. Unlike what we may see in the Muslim community today, they were not neglected or abused by their fellow Muslims, nor were they ostracised from the community. Instead, the Prophet made every effort to accommodate them and made them feel a part of the Ummah. For example, in the case of Abdullāh b. Ummmi Maktūm the Prophet gave him the responsibility of being one of two callers to prayer and made the congregationoal prayer obligatory upon him, and as a result he did not feel like an outcast. The Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) was even admonished by Allāh in the Qur’ān for unintentionally overlooking Abdullāh b. Ummi Maktūm in Makkah, so one can only imagine the sin for discriminating against disabled people. In the case of ‘Amr b. Jamūh, he was given permission by the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) to fight on the battlefield, even though he was told it was not obligatory upon him to do so, as a result of his disability. Furthermore, the Sahāba made great efforts to take care of disabled members of their community and even competed with each other to do so. The Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam) even stated that one of the best ways to draw closer to Allāh is to take care of, and help the mentally challenged and disabled within the community.
To further point out Islām’s stance towards disabled people, and the care and support they received when Muslims were the leading nation in the world, it is important to draw attention to one of the greatest Caliphs in Islamic history, ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz (rahimahullāh). Whilst today the Muslim community lags behind the rest of the world in their treatment of the disabled, ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz (rahimahullāh) established legislation that made it obligatory for the community to take care of disabled people. Such laws were so influential that they were embraced and implemented much later by the West, leading to laws such as the Equality Act 2010 in the UK, and have remained in place until today. Much of what is done for the disabled and the care given to them in the West today originated from the laws he pioneered, using the Qur’ān and Sunnah as a framework. Under his rule, the disabled were given a companion who would be responsible for them, in the same way care workers today are given the role of taking care of a disabled person. That was the condition of the Muslims during that period in Islamic history, a stark contrast to the ignorant, individualistic attitudes much of the Ummah has adopted today.
It is precisely because of this example set out for Muslims by these early Caliphs of Islām that a far greater effort needs to be made by the Muslim community to help children and adults with Intellectual Disabilities. This is not only a recommended act, but also a duty and obligation that Allāh has made incumbent upon all Muslims. A conscious effort also needs to be made to create awareness of Intellectual Disabilities within the Muslim community. This can be done in a number of ways, such as lobbying our Muslim leaders to highlight this issue during khutbahs, lectures and religious gatherings. However, the responsibility does not lie solely on the shoulders of leaders and Imāms, but it lies with the Muslim community as a whole. The more that Muslims speak about this issue with family and friends during social gatherings, the greater level of awareness it will bring. It cannot be reiterated enough that serious Intellectual Disabilities are nothing to be afraid of. They are conditions that Allāh has given to thousands of children and adults in the UK, and thus, the Muslim community should be the first to embrace, support and love them and their families. It is hoped that such changes in the outlook of the Muslim community will lead to greater levels of social acceptance and inclusion of individuals that, still unfortunately, remain on the fringes of the Muslim community today.
Notes: Jahoda, A., & Markova, I. (2004). Coping with social stigma: People with intellectual disabilities moving from institutions and family home. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 48, 719–729.  Larkin, P., Jahoda, A., MacMahon, K., & Pert, C. (2012). Interpersonal sources of conflicts in young people with and without mild to moderate intellectual disability at transition from adolescence to adulthood. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disability, 25, 29–38.  Werner, S., Corrigan, P., Ditchman, N., & Sokol, K. (2012). Stigma and intellectual disability: A review of related measures and future directions. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33, 748-765.  Alexander, L. A., & Link, B. G. (2003). The impact of contact on stigmatising attitudes toward people with mental illness. Journal of Mental Health, 12(3), 271-289.  Goreczny, A. J., Bender, E. E., Caruso, G., & Feinstein, C. S. (2011). Attitudes towards individuals with disabilities: Results of a recent survey and implications of those results. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 1596-1609.  Emerson, E. & Hatton C. (1999). Future trends in the ethnic composition of British society and among British citizens with learning disabilities. Tizard Learning Disability Review, 4, 28–31.  Patka, M., Keys, C. B., Henry, D. B. McDonald, K. E. (2013). Attitudes of Pakistani community members and staff towards people with intellectual disabilities. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 118, 32-43.  Croot, E. J., Grant, G., Cooper, C. L. & Mathers, N. (2008) Perceptions of the causes of childhood disability among Pakistani families living in the UK. Health and Social Care in the Community, 16 (6), 606-613.  World Health Organisation (1990). International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (10th Revision). Geneva, World Health Organisation  Sahīh al-Bukhāri, Volume 7, Book 71, Number 582  https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/learning/conditioninfo/treatment/Pages/default.aspx  http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/autistic-artist-stephen-wiltshire-drawing-new-york-city-memory-article-1.380539  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eXH–CmXgwI&feature=youtube_gdata_player  Ansari, Z. A. (2002). Parental acceptance–rejection of the disabled children in non-urban Pakistan. North American Journal of Psychology, 4(1), 121–128.  Dura-Vila, G., & Hodes, M. (2012). Ethnic factors in mental health service utilisation among people with intellectual disability in high-income countries: systematic review. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 56(9), 827-842.  Sahīh al-Bukhāri, Vol. 7, Book 70, Hadith 545  Al-Qur’ān 80:1-3  Al-Qur’ān 80:6  Sunan Abī Dāwūd and Ahmad  Al-Qur’ān 80:1-16  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ZYdl2aRauo  Crone, P. (2005), Medieval Islamic Political Thought, Edinburgh University Press.  The Legacy of the Prophet in dealing with people with disabilities By Shaikh Ahmad Kutty