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Ramadan: The Month of the Qur’an

Ramadan: The Month of the Qur’an

The Qur’an begins the description of this blessed month with, ‘Ramadan is the month in which was revealed the Qur’an – a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the criterion (between right and wrong)’1. Ever since divine revelation was inspired to Muhammad (peace be upon him), people (Muslims as well as non-Muslims) have marvelled at the Qur’an’s inimitability, both in reference to its content and language. Great scholars such as Imam al-Shafi’i have stated that if no other chapter were to be revealed except al-’Asr, it would be sufficient for mankind. This is due to the concise text and meaning which provides a wealth of information and direction although the chapter only consists of three verses. The Qur’an carries such conciseness throughout being a light of guidance2and wisdom3, admonition4 and a clear message5 in the Arabic language6.

In this article I would like to discuss two main points: the importance of the Qur’an as a source of guidance and its relationship with the Arabic language. As is evident to all Muslims, the Qur’an is Allah’s supreme word to mankind revealed in the Arabic language, and thus, both the Qur’an and the Arabic language have become synonymous with one another.

The Qur’an was revealed over a period of twenty three years to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and is the first source of Islam and the speech of God. It is referred to as the book, guide, glad tidings and criterion amongst others, although most titles tend to point to the same semantic meaning. It delivers guidance to mankind by providing them with a criterion between truth and falsehood and thereafter gives glad tidings to those who successfully adhere to it.

Inevitably, being a source of guidance, The Qur’an is a manual for our lives, encouraging and ordering the believers towards righteousness and warning the evil doers and disbelievers. Its commandments are full of divine wisdom and those who adhere to them will attain felicity. However, how can a person adhere to something that he or she does not understand?

As a result of a lack of understanding, many people neither study the Qur’an nor ponder over its verses. Many argue that a study of the Qur’an is time consuming and that such study is not viable due to other commitments such as work, study etc. However, throughout life we read many things in an attempt to gain a better degree of understanding such as newspapers, books and magazines. Throughout our schooling we study various languages and books on various disciplines seeking to learn not only their contents but to also enhance skills of reading, writing, speaking etc. Thus we must also equally dedicate time to study Arabic and the Qur’an which will not only save us in the hereafter but also enhance our intellectual abilities and life skills. Studying increases the individual in reading and comprehension ability, and seeking a deeper insight into specific verses enhances one’s analytical ability. Additionally, the Qur’an provides life skills which if adhered to, would create an exceptional society whereby citizens would be prime examples of good manners, etiquette, patience and humility, as well as other traits. For example, with regard to interaction between one another we are commanded ‘when you are greeted with a greeting (of peace), answer with an even better greeting, (or at least) with the like thereof.’7 Thereafter you should ‘abstain from lewd speech, from all wicked conduct, and from quarrelling’8. If the Muslims ‘hear vain talk, they turn away from it and say “To us our deeds, and to you yours; peace be to you – we seek not the ignorant.”’9. If anybody engages in moral and conceptual bankrupt speech about Islam, we are commanded ‘leave them to indulge in idle talk and play [with words] until they face that [Judgment] Day of theirs which they have been promised’10. When we do speak we ‘enjoin in virtue and forbid vice’11, ‘extol His (Allah) limitless glory and praise’12 and ‘invite (all) to the Way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching’13. Additionally, you should be humble and ‘be moderate in thy pace, and lower thy voice; for the harshest of sounds without doubt is the braying of the ass.’14 This is just a snippet of the beautiful conduct encouraged in the Qur’an. However, due to the lack of knowledge of the Arabic language in the West, we are seemingly oblivious to the wisdoms found in it.

In addition, there tends to be a culture of ignorance particularly among South Asian communities where the emphasis is on the recitation of the Qur’an while neglecting its translation and meanings. Thus, there has been an air of ignorance among such communities, although surprisingly, such ignorance is either encouraged or overlooked by scholars respected by these communities. It would be true to say that many of these scholars do not know Arabic themselves and are ignorant in terms of Islamic laws and rules of conduct. Recently, in a discussion about the importance of Arabic language with a colleague (a teacher in the UK madrasah system), I enquired as to why children in madrasah’s were not required to learn the Arabic language as well as the Qur’an. I was informed that the majority of teachers (as well as parents) among the South Asian community believe that learning the entire language is not important, learning to read the Qur’an by deciphering the alphabet is sufficient to accrue blessing and fulfil the obligations of prayers. They have completely disregarded the importance of understanding the words they recite, and are content in blindly following the ‘Maulana’s’ in the community.

Such beliefs are unislamic and it is certainly time that we as Muslims procure adequate facilities to learn Arabic alongside the Qur’an for both ourselves and our children as they will be the flag bearers of Islam in the West tomorrow.

It is most certainly a blessing to be able to read the Qur’an in Arabic, but understanding it holds equal weight as both are considered by the vast majority of scholars as fard al-ayn (incumbent upon all individuals). Ibn Taymiyyah wrote, ‘Arabic language is from the religion and knowledge of it is an obligation. Understanding the Qur’an and the sunnah is an obligation, and they cannot be understood except by understanding the Arabic language. Whatever it takes to complete an obligation is in itself an obligation.’15 Allah states: ‘We have sent it down as an Arabic Quran, in order that you may learn wisdom.’16 How can we learn the divine wisdom if the wisdom revealed is not even understood? Additionally, Allah states: ‘And certainly We have set forth to men in this Quran similitudes of every sort that they may reflect. An Arabic Qur’an without any crookedness, that they may guard (against evil).’17 Allah specifically mentions that the Qur’an is an Arabic one, which we must use to guard ourselves, although this task is unfeasible for those who have no command over the language. It is evident from the above verses that the purpose of Qur’an was not only to be recited, but also to be understood.

In the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him), people submitted to the religion of Muhammad by merely overhearing a few verses (as opposed to now where people recite it repetitively although their hearts are empty). Famous is the story of Umar bin Khattab who heard the opening of chapter TaHa which brought him to tears and consequently led to his conversion. For over a millennium people have been memorising the Qur’an, and the best practice is that of the early generations [salaf] whereby the sahabah (companions of the prophet) would commit ten verses to memory, study their meanings and explanations, and then act upon them before memorising another ten. Memorising the divine scripture is a great act which Allah encourages ‘Saad. Consider this Qur’an, endowed with all that one ought to remember!’18 The noble companions of the prophet memorised the book of Allah in its entirety and fashioned their lives, actions and beliefs around the divine revelation. {quotes}The fact that it was the main source from which they understood and acquired their deen was a major factor in making them not only some of the most distinctive individuals in history, but also the most honoured and pleased with by Allah.{/quotes}

It is incumbent upon us (may Allah have mercy upon us) to understand the Qur’an, its warnings, stories, laws and glad tidings so that we may be successful. If we believe it to be a manual, how do we expect to benefit from it? Knowledge of the Qur’an and its language is essential for protection against misguided innovated ideas and beliefs such as shirk, forbidden types of tawassul etc. which become rampant due to ignorance of the correct beliefs. Allah states, ‘And [on that Day] the Apostle will say “O my Sustainer! (some of) my people have come to regard this Qur’an as something (that ought to be) discarded!”’19 This will not only be the disbelievers, but also those individuals who pay no heed to it, ignoring its heightened importance and disregarding its significance as a communication from Allah the Most High. As was discussed in the previous paragraph, the sahabah’s relationship with the Qur’an was one of the fundamental reasons as to why Allah gave them status and honour, to the extent that people 1400 years later still read their stories and aspire to imitate their heroic actions.

We must also recognise that the Arabic language has a much larger part to play then we as a community in the West have previously assumed. Ibn Taymiyyah wrote ‘As for becoming accustomed to talking to one another in a language other than Arabic…undoubtedly this is makrooh (disliked)…Such was also the case in Khurasaan in the past (that they spoke Arabic), then they became lax with regard to the language and got used to speaking Farsee (Persian) until it became prevalent and Arabic was forgotten by most of them. Undoubtedly this is disliked. The best way is to become accustomed to speaking Arabic so that the young people will learn it in their homes and schools, so that the symbol of Islam and its people will prevail. This will make it easier for the people of Islam to understand the Qur‘aan and Sunnah, and the words of the salaf…Know that being used to using a language has a clear and strong effect on one’s thinking, behaviour and religious commitment. It also has an effect on making one resemble the early generations of this Ummah, the Companions and the Taabi’een. Being like them improves one’s thinking, religious commitment and behaviour.’20 Research undertaken by Coffman (in Algeria) reiterates this whereby he states ‘My research shows that the language of study is the most significant variable in determining a student’s attachment to Islamic or Islamist principles.’21 During the occupation of Algeria by the French, officials noted that they would never be able to fully colonialise Algeria unless they were able to remove the Arabic language from Algerian society.22

Learning from the mistakes of those before us, we come to realise that many follow scriptures recorded in dead languages. For example, the Christians first spoke Aramaic and some spoke Hebrew. Both languages died out (among Christians) and in their stead Greek was adopted as the language of Christianity. Later on, Latin (the language of the Romans) was adopted and now English has become the main language of Christendom. As a result of the loss of the first languages, Christianity and the Bible have found themselves in a dilemma. The bible has changed through so many languages that the semantics of many words were either corrupted and altered or lost. The original manuscripts of the bible no longer exist and with regards to the oldest copies of the Gospels, no two are identical. This led to the division of Christianity into many different sects where each sect claims to hold the ‘truth’. However, as Allah stated in the Qur’an ‘and from them are illiterate (people) who do not know the scriptures, but they rely upon false desires and they follow nothing but conjecture.’23 From this verse we may deduce that the people were illiterate and could not read, and that they were also considered ‘illiterate’ due to their lack of knowledge about the scriptures. As a result, they had to speculate parts of their faith and in their attempt they resulted in following their desires (what they wanted to believe in, and what seemed correct to them) as their conjecture was baseless.

As is evident, the impact of the Qur’an and Arabic as its language is multifaceted; enhancing an individual’s behaviour and providing them a deeper understanding about the world around them, as well as benefiting Muslims as a community by improving their religious commitment and sense of Islamic culture. Fundamentally, studying both Arabic and the Qur’an is important for our success in this life and in the hereafter. What better language than the one with which Allah spoke to mankind, and what better speech is there than the speech of Allah?

 

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Notes:This article has been reposted

 

Source: www.islam21c.com

1. 2:185
2. 42:52
3. 10:1
4. 38:1
5. 43:2
6. 20:113
7. 4:86
8. 2:197
9. 28:55
10. 70:42
11. 3:110
12. 25:58
13. 16:125
14. 31:19
15. Ibn Taymiyyah. Iqitidaa Siratul Mustaqeem. 1/470
16. 12:2
17. 39:27-28
18. 38:1
19. 25:30
20. Ibn Taymiyyah. Iqitidaa Siratul Mustaqeem.
21. James Coffman. Does the Arabic Language Encourage Radical Islam? http://www.meforum.org/article/276
22. The role of Arabic language in Muslim societies may be discussed in another article as it is beyond the scope of this one.
23. 2:78

 

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17 comments

  1. A few points
    Everything you have said brother is true, it is important to know the ‘Quranic’Arabic. I say this because the notion amongst people nowadays that if you dont know how to ‘speak’ arabic even though you have studied in the madrasa system, you dont know anything!!
    However i find the paragraph about your discussion with a colleague confusing. If by ‘madrasa system’ you mean the evening maktabs then it is true they are not taught the language just recitation. 2hrs in the evenings 2/5 days/week is much too less to cover recitation,memorisation,masaa’il,aqaa’id etc and then language!! Some of these children do not last in these makaatibs more than 2/3 years. Within the attended time what is more important? Learning to recite the qur’aan correclty along with fiqh,aqaaid etc or learning the language first? This said alhamdulillah there are steps taken recently to also deliver language lessons aswel but ultimatlely…..Knowing/understanding/speaking the Arabic language in no way says you will be a better muslim, as a few previous comments have already mentioned. If that was the case abu jahl shoud have been the best muslim with his mastery of the arabic language.

  2. Ramadan month of the Quran
    The usual article making a good point but in the normal confused ‘self-appointed inhertors of the salaf way’ with contradictory arguments. If the hypothisis is so true why is the arab world the most ignorant of all the muslims!

  3. nice article.never mind the length.it is to the point.we should agree differences have crept into our religion through ourselves.am in complete agreement that this is all due to ignorance or ignorancy from ourselves.or shall go a step further by saying that we feign ignorance thus creating divisions among ourselves.

    We should all speak with one voice.why do we differ ? is it because we think of ourselves above everyone or is it simply through sheer ignorance of our RELIGION ?cultures and customs should be kept well separated from our RELIGIOUS BELIEFS.

    We should be grateful to ALLAH-swt ,for making us be born a muslim.All that remain for us to do is to stick to 1.THE QURAN AND NOTHING BUT THE QURAN.Oh by the way don’t rush out to call me a munkir-hadith.This indeed am not.Neither do I expect this from my muslim brothers and sisters.Only advice from me here will be to OUTRIGHTLY REJECT WEAK OR CONTROVERSIAL HADITH which is totally against the HOLY QURAN.One thing which we can’t is to REJECT EVEN THE SMALL PORTION OF GUIDANCE AS STATED IN THE HOLY QURAN.

    We should all think in creating UNITY , PEACE and HARMONY AMONG OURSELVES with the understanding that nothing else matters.We should bring clarity instead of controversies as being controversial will lead us astray.

    We should be able to clear MISCONCEPTIONS from among ourselves first before we start blaming others.

    Iam concluding by expressing warmest of wishes for an excellent Ramadhan and fothcoming Eid-ul fitr.Remember to be benevolent and charitable towards all the sufferers of this world irrespective of their beliefs-some may disagree with this but am not concerned as ALLAH-swt , is not just for us but for each and every individuals as ACCONTABILITY is and should always be to ALLAH-swt.

    RAMADHAN KAREEM and forthcoming EID -UL-FITR MUBARAK.

    WASSALAAM.

  4. In response to Abu Jameelah
    salam

    Those Arabs ignorant of Islam are as such because they speak colloquial filth and they have little if no iman. In fact i think the Middle East is almost in the state similar to that of the Quraysh during the Makkan phase of the Prophet’s sirah – there are plenty of disbelievers and enemies of Islam amongst the Arabs now; or indeed a situation like in Medina where there were a significant minority of hypocrites.

    Moreover, i dont think was it suggested that a language alone will create a strong civilisation. But it was during the Abbasid phase that trade, commerce, philosophy, and all sorts of knowledge flourished precisely because vast swathes of people and vast stretches of land were united by a common language and thus united by a common culture. This is why Ibn Khaldun could work as a judge thousands of miles away from his homeland. Today Muslims don’t respect each other – a fact perpetuated by lack of common langauge and artificial state borders created by colonial forces hostile to Muslims. Muslims now treat each other as strangers. We all tend to be quite ethnocentric but it’s much harder to do that when someone speaks your own language and speaks it well – it has the ability to break down all sorts of prejudices.

    Your comment about the abbasids is perhaps a mistake – the Abbasids fell in 1519 and both the Ottomans and Mughals emerged after that. In any case i dont think your comment about turkish for this and persian for that etc is strictly true. Each region spoke its specific vernacular for almost all cultural activity.

    Your last comment was the most disappointing though. The fact that the UK Muslims struggle with English is an indictment upon them and it is certainly not a reason to give up on language skills. By encouraging people to understand the importance of language in general it is likely to foster a revival in eloquence in Arabic and English or indeed any other useful vernacular. The Messenger of Allah was eloquent and any Muslim who isnt skilled in English but prides him/herself on adopting the sunnah should bear that in mind. Language is everything…it’s the basic unit of discourse and narratives which shape what we believe and feel. Muslims in the West are losing the narrative wars and emphasising the importance of langauge skills (then transferred into various discursive products like film, magazine, novels, plays, books etc) could never be more important than now. Elegant mastery over classical Arabic and the most important secular language of the age(if not Arabic) should be in the skill set of every Muslim in every age. May Allah make it so.

    P.S that brother who felt that this article was too long…all rigorous BA/MA course require you to read articles about 5 times the size of this daily. I think it’s perhaps you that should pracitice reading (waAllahi i mean no offense). Perhaps what this article does need is more rigorous editing…but the author’s message i concur with 100%

  5. Bilingualism
    Research has shown that the cognition of children who speak more than one language develops faster, which is why children are encouraged to become fully literate in their home language AS WELL AS English. Go to North Wales and I am sure you will find a school where no one speaks English as a mother tongue. Are the English going to deny them all British citizenship ??

    Bilingual Muslim children need to learn and be well versed in standard English to follow the National Curriculum and go for higher studies and resarch to serve humanity. They also need to learn and be well versed in Arabic to recite the Holy Quran with understanding and perform their prayers with understanding. At the same time, they need to learn and be well versed in Urdu and other community languages to keep in touch with their cultural roots and enjoy the beauty of their literature and poetry.

    Bilingual mUslim children need state funded Muslim schools with bilingual Muslim teachers as role models during their developmental period. There is no place for a non-Muslim child or a teacher in a Muslim school.

    There are hundreds of state and church schools where Muslim childrn are in majority. In my opinion, all such schools may be opted out as Muslim Academies.

    A Muslim is a citizen of this tiny global village. He/she does not want to become notoriously monolingual Brit.
    IA

  6. we are human
    because we are human,
    who shall act not to give a bad towards others,
    thus, to the people who have willingness, time, and their chances for learning arabic as a way to learn quran and preach about it,…
    we shall praise allah, and not to say bad towards them.
    And so, to the people who doesn’t understand yet, or knowing it but choose not to understand… thus, it is our chances to educate them with positive and politely.

    may allah put hidayah to all of us who read upon this matter,
    and allah put us into his people who loves Islamic Teaching. (amiin).

  7. Whats wrong with blind following. Its better to follow blindly someone who has a good eyesight rather than following a blind person with eyes wide open.
    A have seen people who are qualified MA in Arabic but have a serious lack of knowledge in Islamic sciences.
    The article points out that is is obligatory to know Arabic. I would say it is desirable although that does not give a person the right to interpret the Qur’an and hadith

  8. dr.shaukat Ali

    Ramadan:the month of quran
    Assalam-o-alaikum,
    Its very nice article but had it be bit short it would have been easy and convenient for many to read,hope in future you try to make short and compact artcles,Jazakallah

  9. muslim/believer
    I agree that we must learn Arabic but furthermore we must practice Islam as an Ummah. With all the disunity in the Ummah,my brother,we must practice simple acts of civilized people. Kindness, sharing,caring,and wanting for your brother what you want for yourself. Please practice acts of kindness
    not only during Ramadan but throughout the year. Personally, the Ummah needs re-envigorating so we can appreciate the words of Al-Quran Al-Karim. One of my most treasured sermons is; The Farewell Sermon by The Prophet(PBUH) These treasured words lay the format for all muslims to approach a life of progress in this life and the next. Inshallah, we will do a better job of learning our deen and inherit Allah’s bounty that awaits us.

  10. Great article!
    Hi there, just wanted to say this is a fantastic article which is absolutely right and hits a major problem head on…people need to understand what they are reciting or else what could be the point of reciting if the words you hear can only be interpreted as sounds!!

    Wonderful article….thank you so much for sharing…Ja Zak Allah Khair

  11. Culture of Ignorance?
    Salaam,

    I think the writer in harsh in saying that there exists a culture of ignorance “particularly” in the South Asian community. A poor choice of words in the part of the writer. I am from the South Asian community, and took the time to travel abroad and learn the basics of Quranic Arabic. I have therefore lived amongst Arabs and also have Arab friends in the UK. My obsevations are that while most will not understand Arabic, they are much closer to the Deen regarding observing the rules of Shariah, keeping the acts of worship and respecting Islamic etiquette/practising the sunnah – this is especially true of the Indian community in my opinion. It is also ignorant to say that the S Asian community do not value the Arabic language – this observation being based on a conversation with one person?! In London at least, most large Mosques and almost all S Asian community centres will be running some form of Arabic course via some avenue. I agree with the writer, as do most younger S Asians, that it is a weakness that Arabic language is not taught through the madresa system, but this too is changing as younger people take charge of the committees. May Allah give us all hidayah and hikmah to increase in knowledge and avoid fitnah.

    Ma’salaama.

  12. Faraz Choudhry

    Hadith
    The Prophet (pbuh) did say that there would come a time when the people of the East would recite the Qur-aan and it wouldn’t affect beyond their lips. Who was he talking about? Look at the state of us Asians today and how many deviant sects have come from the part of the world i.e. Bareilvis, Qaadhianis, etc. and all the fithna in the society top-down. No wonder there are so many natural disasters occurring, Allah is Angry!

  13. Miss
    Salaam! Thankyou for sharing all that knowledge! Was a great and very interesting read! I was just wondering, would it be sufficient for me to be able to understand the Quran by reading it in english? Or would i have to learn Arabic? An answer would be much appreciated, thankyou!

  14. Eugene S. Jones

    Ramadan : Month of the Qu’ran
    Thanks for making the point that what you pronounce should be understood. As you stated language unites people, and we as Muslims need to be united.

  15. Imtiaze Ahmed

    Article too long…
    The sheer size [length] of this article put me off to read it with full attention and concentration, not to mention chunk of text blocks which adds to the reluctance. If you really want more people [especially Muslims] to read, it is a good idea to make such articles/information short and succinct. May Allah give us all ‘hidayat’ and love for Islam. Ameen.

  16. If Arabic is so important, then why are Arabs so ignorant of the religion
    Salaam.

    Thanks for good article. But can you explain the following:
    - Why are most Arabs so ignorant of the religion if they
    know arabic?
    - Why most of the cirlces, talks and events are attended
    by non-Arabs ?
    - Why the Arab world is the most illiterate areas of the
    world ?

    Points to consider:
    - Perhaps it should be Quranic Arabic and not colliqual
    - Quran Arabic is important for understanding the religion
    only but won’t make a civilisation otherwise why are we
    seing a renaissance of India and China ? Nothing from
    the Muslim world ? Attitudes must change first.
    - Most Abbasid period i.e Mughal, Ottoman and
    Safvarids in the muslim heart lands, arabic
    was language of law, farsi was the languae of
    poetry and turkish was the language of commerce.
    UK Muslims struggle with English. As a long as they
    have read the quran well and have some good comprehension
    of Quran, we should not think more, otherwise look
    at the Arab world.

  17. understand this verse
    One for the brothers here, Allah says in the Quran “those who rule by other than what Allah has revealed are the Fasiqoon, Zalimoon, Kafiroon” why don’t people in the west understand this verse before making a backward istihaad?

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